Monday, May 25, 2020

Is Africa Overpopulated

Is Africa overpopulated? The answer by most measures is no. As of mid-2015, the continent as a whole had only 40 people per square mile. Asia, by comparison, had 142 people per square mile; Northern Europe had 60. Critics also point to the how many fewer resources Africas population consumes versus that of many Western countries and the United States in particular. Why then are so many organizations and governments worried about Africas growing population? Extremely Uneven Distribution As with so many things, one of the problems with discussions about Africa’s population problems is that people are citing facts about an incredibly diverse continent.  A 2010 study showed that 90% of Africa’s population was concentrated on 21% of the land. Much of that 90% are living in crowded urban cities and densely populated countries, like Rwanda, which has a population density of 471 people per square mile. The island countries of Mauritius and Mayotte are much higher than that with 627 and 640 respectively. This means that the other 10% of Africa’s population is spread across the remaining 79% of Africa’s land mass. Of course, not all of that 79% is suitable or desirable for habitation. The Sahara, for instance, covers millions of acres, and the lack of water and extreme temperatures makes the vast majority of it uninhabitable, which is part of why Western Sahara has two  people per square mile, and Libya and Mauritania have 4 people per square mile. In the southern part of the continent, Namibia and Botswana, which share the Kalahari desert, also have extremely low populations for their area. Low Rural Populations Even a low population might constitute overpopulation in a desert environment with scarce resources, but many of the people in Africa who are in areas of low population live in more moderate environments. These are the rural farmers, and their population density is very low as well. When the Zika  virus spread rapidly across South America and was linked to severe birth defects, many asked why the same effects had not already been noted in Africa, where the Zika virus had long been endemic. Researchers are still investigating the question, but one potential answer is that whereas the mosquito carrying it in South America preferred urban areas, the African mosquito vector was prevalent in rural areas. Even if the Zika virus in Africa had produced a significant rise in the birth defect microcephaly, it may have gone unnoticed in Africa’s rural districts because the low population density means that very few babies are born in these areas in comparison with South Americas populo us cities. Even a significant rise in the percent of children born in microcephaly in a rural area would produce too few cases to attract notice. Rapid Growth, Strained Infrastructures The real concern, though, is not Africas population densities, but the fact that it has the fastest growing population of the seven continents. In 2014, it had a population growth of 2.6%, and it has the highest percentage of people under 15 years (41%).    And this growth is most evident in those areas that are the most populated. The rapid growth strains African countries’ urban infrastructures – their transportation, housing, and public services - which in many cities are already underfunded and over-capacity. Climate Change   Another concern is the impact of this growth on resources. Africans do consume far fewer resources at present than Western countries, but development could change that. More to the point, Africas population growth and its reliance on agriculture and timber are compounding the enormous soil erosion problems facing many countries. Desertification and climate change are also forecasted to increase and they are compounding the food management issues created by urbanization and rapid population growth. In sum, Africa is not overpopulated, but it does have high population growth rates in comparison to other continents, and that growth is straining urban infrastructures and producing environmental problems that are compounded by climate change.   Sources Linard C, Gilbert M, Snow RW, Noor AM, Tatem AJ (2012) â€Å"Population Distribution, Settlement Patterns and Accessibility across Africa in 2010.† PLoS ONE 7(2): e31743. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031743

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Hashimoto s Thyroiditis An Autoimmune Disorder Of The...

Michelle Henry Cheramie Trahan Biology 2402 November 27, 2016 Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis History of the Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is considered an autoimmune disorder of the thyroid, first discovered in 1912, by a Japanese doctor, Hakaru Hashimoto. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis disease is currently considered a genetically predisposed disorder caused by both environmental and endogenous conditions. Genetically predisposed Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, occurs more often in Caucasians over other ethnicities. Environmental factors that produce the autoimmune disorder are infections, disproportionate iodine intake, drugs, as well as chemical and radiation exposure, according to Syrenicz, Anhelli (2013) This paper will discuss the importance of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis disease, symptoms, Metabolic and Physiological effects, treatment options, and side effects associated with treatments. Dr. Hakaru Hashimoto identified four patients with similar characteristics such as: â€Å"diffuse lymphocytic infiltration, fibrosis, parenchymal atrophy, and eosinophil ic change in some of the acinar cells.† Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis often presents a painless yet enlarged thyroid gland, called a goiter. Hashimoto’s disease was often misdiagnosed and often found by either surgery or a thyroidectomy, according to Syrenicz, Anhelli (2013) Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis can also come as an attack on the thyroid via an autoimmune disorder. The immune system can attack the thyroid; however, no one knows exactly why thisShow MoreRelatedHashimoto’S Thyroiditis, Also Called Hashimoto’S Disease1411 Words   |  6 PagesHashimoto’s Thyroiditis, also called Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland. It was named for the Japanese surgeon who discovered it in 1912 The thyroid is a small butterfly shaped gland in the front of the neck. The thyroid makes hormones called T3 and T4. These hormones regulate metabolism. The thyroid is controlled by hor mones of the pituitary gland, which is also called the â€Å"master gland.† It is a pea-sized gland located in theRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Autoimmune Diseases834 Words   |  4 PagesClassification of autoimmune diseases Autoimmune diseases are caused by auto-antibodies, according to auto-antibodies can be divided into: organ-specific, which affects one organ; non-organ specific, which are a multisystem disease. 2.1. Organ-specific 2.1.1. Autoimmune thyroid diseases They are a common cause of thyroid disorders and it is caused by auto-antibodies against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH), intracytoplasmic antigen or thyroglobulin. 2.1.1.1.Grave s disease Grave s diseaseRead MoreStarting At The Age Of Seven, I Can Distinctly Remember1525 Words   |  7 PagesStarting at the age of seven, I can distinctly remember hearing the constant worry and concern of my mother s voice while looking at the bulging goiter in my neck. Due to this concern, I was placed in the hospital while battling intense throat pain and confusion. Through various lab works and examinations my doctor ruled out that I have Hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is of such high interest to me due to the fact that I will be living with this disease for the rest of my life. This disease is rootedRead MoreLife Of Working Women During The Years Of Women2217 Words   |  9 PagesIn today s age women are the main suffers of medical conditions as well as psychiatric problems. Women are constantly trying to maintain a balance between work and family. They are prone to more stress due to the responsibilities they have to balance. For many years psychologists have tried to understan d the root cause of the problem especially from a biological perspective. The general consensus amongst them suggests that thyroid dysfunction may be an important factor to consider especially inRead MoreDisease, High Blood Cholesterol And Brain Diseases990 Words   |  4 Pageschronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is directly correlated to the thyroid gland: meaning that it is autoimmune deficiency disease. The thyroid is apart of the endocrine system in which that it produces certain hormones to regulate body functions. A doctor named Dr. Haraku Hashimoto titled this disease, since he was the first to discover and describe the certain conditions. Particularly, this disease causes inflammation in the thyroid. It was stated above that Hashimoto’s was as an autoimmune deficiency disease;Read MoreDescription Of Pseudoseizures Versus True Seizures3543 Words   |  15 PagesNeuroendocrine Tumors: Insulinoma). Insulinoma is often misdiagnose because of the many factors that can cause hypoglycemia and seizure. The research article, Misdiagnosis of Seizures: Insulinoma Presenting as Adult-onset Seizure Disorder by TD Graves, S Gandhi, S J M Smith, SM Sisodiya, and G S Conway discusses the diagnostic error made on a 44 year old woman. The woman was referred for management of refractory seizures. Her symptoms began at the age of 40 when she experienced monthly episodes of confusion andRead MoreCase Study of Graves Disease Essay1639 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The case study selected focused on Grave’s disease an autoimmune disorder involving over production of thyroid hormones triidiothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). In the United States it is the most common form of hyperthyroidism. The over taxed organ then becomes enlarged (goiter). This case study report will discuss the clinical progression and presentation of this disease, define and describe what an autoimmune disorder is, outline what clinical testing is performed for proper diagnosisRead MoreCoexistence of Autoimmune Disease with Type I Diabetes Mellitus in Libyan Patients2041 Words   |  8 Pagesclinical study was undertaken on 849 patients admitted in endocrine department of Tripoli Medical Center from December 2007 to July 2008. From the patients files, the concomitant disease presence or absence was also recorded; especially with reference thyroid function. The important investigations as prescribed by the physician were also recorded. patient’s serum level o f T4, T3, FT4, FT3 and TSH were measured for 748 patients. The venous blood samples were taken from all the subjects in the morning afterRead MoreHypothyroidism : Understanding Thyroid Function And Treatment Essay1678 Words   |  7 Pages Hypothyroidism: Understanding Thyroid Function and Treatment Nicollette Ames Blackhawk Technical College Hypothyroidism The history of hypothyroidism dates way back to the 1800s; seeing the symptoms in patients, even before the disease was able to be diagnosed. Later realizing that many of the cases of cretinism, later called hypothyroidism, were largely associated with the lack in function of the thyroid. Today, also realizing that there is not only internal factors that influenceRead MoreClinical Manifestations Of Hiv Infections1545 Words   |  7 Pagesmentioned. Past medical history should include recurrent infections, blood transfusions, or use of blood products, chronic illnesses, tuberculosis, hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections, and autoimmune disorders. Family history of malignancy, anemia, recent infectious disease, tuberculosis, immune disorders, or hemophilia. Personal and social history include travel places, use of illicit drugs (intravenous and injections), and sexual history. Sexual history should include important risk factors for

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Strategic Management Tourism Industry Porter Five Forces

Introduction The model of the Five Competitive Forces was developed by Michael E. Porter in his book Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors in 1980. Since that time it has become an important tool for analyzing an organizations industry structure in strategic processes. Porter’s model is based on the insight that a corporate strategy should meet the opportunities and threats in the organizations external environment. Especially, competitive strategy should base on and understanding of industry structures and the way they change. Porter has identified five competitive forces that shape every industry and every market. These forces determine the intensity of competition and hence the profitability and†¦show more content†¦Hence, if vital resources are unavailable or very costly, entry will clearly be constrained, as well as this airport slots provide a classic resource barrier to entry. In some industries, there are very substantial costs associated with switching from one supplier to another. Airline fleet planning illustrates this point. An airline only using, for example, Boeing aircraft will have built up a large investment in Boeing spare parts, Boeing orientated flight simulators, and in the training of its staff to be familiar with Boeing products. Therefore there will be a strong financial incentive to continue to buy from Boeing. In the event of the Airbus to break the stranglehold of Boeing at such an airline, they will have to offer very large discounts on the purchase price of their aircraft, in order to effectively pay themselves for the Switching Costs of moving away from Boeing. Incentives and substantial amounts of pilot training would be best case scenario. The problem for airlines is that they do not have the Switching Cost protection which assists aircraft manufacturers in retaining their customer base. An airline may be getting a worthwhile amount of business from a major customer as a result of having a corporate deal with them. It will be a simple task for another carrier to come along and offer theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Accor Hotels : Company Profile947 Words   |  4 Pages Suite Novotel, Mercure, Mama Shelter, Adagio/ Adagio Access and economy and economy brands are IBIS, IBIS Styles, IBIS Budget, and Hotel F1(Accor, 2016). 2. Analysing the macro- environment of Accor Hotels Macro environment comprises external forces that organisation cannot directly control, instead organisation need to manage their macro environment in a way that benefits them (The Macro Environment Pest Analysis, 2016). The PESTLE analysis is the most widely recognized approach for consideringRead MoreExternal Trends1214 Words   |  5 PagesDefine the term environment in this context. We say that strategic managers within organisations must consider environmental influences before arriving at business decisions; discuss what these environmental forces are and how they would impact on the decisions made by strategic management on the future viability of the business. As well as this, do a brief analysis of the 5 forces driving competition in the hospitality industry using Porters model as the basis of your analysis. If there is a question:Read MoreMarketing Audit : The World s Top Hotel Administrator And Business Sector Essay1334 Words   |  6 Pagesthe creation of more market plan and also align itself for the comppetion more accurately . Marketing audit is a systematic examination of a business’s marketing environment, objectives, strategies and activities with a view to identifying key strategic issues, problem areas and opportunities. Market planning is meant to address the most important issue facing corporation or function. The organisaton examines internal and external factors of its business and it utlises the output of market auditRead MoreMedical Tourism22177 Words   |  89 PagesTanaka Business School Imperial College London An Insight into Malaysia’s Medical Tourism Industry from a New Entrant Perspective by Mr. Bhavin J. Shah A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MBA degree and Diploma of Imperial College London September 2008 SYNOPSIS The overarching objective of this project is to provide an insight into Malaysia’s medical tourism industry. The study conducted offers assistance to a new upcoming hospital in Malaysia toRead MoreStrategic Analysis and Strategic Management900 Words   |  4 Pages Explain why strategic analysis is necessary in the process of developing an appropriate strategy. Identify tools that are available to examine the external environment and discuss how and why they are used. Introduction Strategy is a high level plan in which to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. It is very important because resources available to achieve these goals are usually limited. Strategy is often the difference between mediocrityRead MoreTap Air Portugal Interium Report Essays1721 Words   |  7 Pages 1 Summary 4 2 The Airline Industry Analysis 5 2.1 The Industry Competitive Analysis 5 2.1.1 Potential New entrants 5 2.1.2 Power of buyers 5 2.1.3 Power of Suppliers 5 2.1.4 Substitutes 5 2.1.5 Rivalry 6 3 Strategic Groups 6 4 External Factors that can affect the industry 7 4.1 Political and Legal 7 4.2 Economical 7 4.3 Social 7 4.4 Technological 7 4.5 Environmental 8 5 Key Factors of success in the industry 8 6 Key drivers of change in the industry 8 7 TAP internal analysis 9 Read MoreEssay about Strategic Management - Air NZ external analysis1549 Words   |  7 Pagesfor Air New Zealand using the strategic tools such as PEST analysis and Porter’s Five Forces aiming to identify key strategic issues which will affect the profitability of the company. The analysis will be based on these two categories: the General environment which centralise on the company’s future among other competitors and the Industry environment which centralise on situations and circumstances which will affect the operation of Air New Zealand in the industry. PEST Analysis Political/Legal Read MoreAirFrance-KLM Report Essay example1345 Words   |  6 Pagesz CASE STUDY: Air France – KLM: Changing the Rules of the Game [Type text] Introduction Air France-KLM Case (Som 2009) provides the background for airlines industry and factors impacting companies’ positions, details about the history of air-carrier alliances and their challenges. The main focus of the Case is on two companies: Air France and KLM and their decision to merge despite predictions of failure. The period covered by the case ends in 2006. As most aviation companies worldwideRead MoreBusiness Systems and Information Management Tui Case2653 Words   |  11 PagesA REPORT ON BUSINESS SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT BY JEANINE BANKS – 21739226 Word Count: 2, 133 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦... | 3 | 2. FINDINGS2.1. GENERAL ENVIRONMENT†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦2.1.1. PEST Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.2.1.2. SWOT Analysis..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. | 446 | 2.2. IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.2.2.1. Threat of Entry†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦2.2.2. Power of Suppliers†¦.Read MoreA Swot Analysis And Porter s Five Forces Model Of Industry Competition1535 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract The casino industry is very important within the USA because of its size and the amount of yearly revenue it produces. Statistically, in 2009 alone, the industry alone produced approximately 30.74 billion. Also, the casino industry provides multiple job opportunities and helps build attractive places that encourage tourism, and bring revenue to states in different ways. However, this industry is currently facing multiple challenges due to competition among casinos, the construction of

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Talent Management †a Buzzword in Corporate Hr Today free essay sample

Not surprising to know, 60-70% of the Indian CEOs spend their time in strategising talent recruitment and retention (according to a BTI study). The next obvious question that our mind poses is â€Å"Why? † The scope of corporate HR has much widened since the 1990s, from the mundane activities of just hiring and paying the workmen, to the ‘strategic HR’ activities like training the recruitees as well. Restructuring the organisation (e. g. , some companies moved from centralised to decentralised organisational structure) has led to the restructuring of the job roles and concentrating on compensation management too, with equal importance. The learning management systems to manage the learning and keeping track of competency paths of all the employees in the organisation is one such advancement, typical to the strategic HR function, alongwith the Applicant Tracking System, and Compensation system in the list. Having entered an intriguing area as this, the question that pricks is â€Å"Are we still in the strategic HR function days? † Today the recruiters are not bothered on how to acquire talent; they are bothered to make a cost effective and more efficient ‘competency based recruitment system’. We will write a custom essay sample on Talent Management – a Buzzword in Corporate Hr Today or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Acquiring talent is easier today than retaining the talent. Today the Learning and Development department is not bothered on how to train the employees; they are bothered about filling the competency needs of their employees for the future needs as well, in addition to the present. The CEOs are concerned about succession planning and finding ways to hone and up-bring the existing talent pool, laying greener pastures for the organisation tomorrow. Thus we own all rights to say that today we are in the â€Å"Talent Management era† and that strategic management perspective has just become old. HR function has moved all the way from a ‘Business function’ to ‘Business partner’, to what is called ‘Business integration’ today. Process improvements for efficiency and effectiveness, competency management, performance management, and succession planning top the priority list of activities in organisations in this era. Effectiveness and efficiency comes only when we have appropriate talent pool at place, hence managing the talent is becoming very vital activity. Walking on the paths of Mr. Jack Welch, to be #1 or #2 in the industry, every organisation is trying to knock out the other in every aspect from ‘product’ to ‘people’. Competition has increased tremendously and hence the demand for right talent! The industry has thus turned a hot cake for employees, where they have numerous avenues to go (unlike in the past), if they do not receive the â€Å"asset like treatment† in the existing organisation. It has become two- sided, wherein the employee is benefitted in terms of â€Å"growth in career and competencies† and the organisation gets his services in return. If not taken care of appropriately, then he walks out. Talent retention is thus, one very important motive of talent management, apart from the core objective of taming the talent for surviving in the industry. Last but not the unimportant, in today’s context the organisations brand image goes the way it treats and nurtures its people. From the business perspective, its seems apt to conclude with what Mr. Tufan Ghosh, the CEO of Columbia Asia Hospitals, says – â€Å"If you do not get your people right, chances are you wont get anything else right†!

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Language Barrier in Education and Social Life

Introduction Immigration causes differences in language and lifestyle. Language barriers refer to challenges experienced when one tries to communicate with an individual or people who speak a different language. This phenomenon is common in areas where there is a conglomeration of people from diverse backgrounds like culture and nationality. The term is also used to refer to problems encountered by immigrants when learning a foreign language (Kim Mattila, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Language Barrier in Education and Social Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to these challenges, there have been efforts to eliminate or reduce the impact of these differences especially in international learning institutions. Differences in language cause difficulties in education and even social life and can be solved in many ways to become less problematic. Consequently, immigrants should be aware of lan guage differences before moving, and this problem can be solved in a short period of time. Language differences cause a major barrier in communication. Under normal circumstances, communication can only take place if there is a common language to be used as a link between the communicating parties. It is quite common among immigrants, who find themselves in a foreign country, which uses a different language from his or her home language (Kim Mattila, 2011). Because of this barrier, affected immigrants are prone to misunderstanding, since the information passed across cannot be accurately interpreted. What are some of these language differences? As an element of cultural identity, human language is diverse and unique. For instance, English speakers are likely to encounter communication problems when interacting with Frenchmen because of the disjoint nature of the languages being used. Besides language uniqueness, the difference in accent affects the attainment of effective communica tion. It is not surprising that some English-speaking students find the American accent to be a barrier to effective communication (Kim Mattila, 2011). This problem arises from the fact that British English is more preferred by most international students and other immigrants. While this is the case, there are distinctive features, which define language accent. These include pronunciations, stress and intonations. For the case of these immigrants, the problem of accent is usually complicated because of the diverse nature of the American culture. This is to mean that people from certain regions within the country may not understand one another, and the problem worsens when a third party from a different country is included (Green, 2009).Advertising Looking for research paper on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another language difference that acts as a communication barrier is the presence of phrases a nd idioms. In the case of American English, communication involves the usage of an array of phrases and idioms, which carry meanings that are different from the literal meaning of the root words used (Green, 2009). This can be a major communication problem, especially when immigrants do not have exposure to the phrases and idioms, which are commonly used. Many would get confused and misunderstood because of these distinctive differences. Language structure also creates differences among world languages, thus affecting immigrants. A good example is the universally recognized sentence structure of subject-verb-object in English (Green, 2009). This broadly differs from Japanese sentence structure, subject-object-verb. Additionally, some international languages contain suffixes, which cannot be converted into another language, say English. As a result, immigrants from such language backgrounds are likely to experience communication difficulties. Other factors include but not limited to culture, slang and language style. However, these barriers shouldn’t be problems when adapting new environments. This can be realized through familiarization of another country’s language before immigrating (Cronjà ©, 2009). Language differences shouldn’t be a barrier in education because of the essence of learning, language is one of the things people learn. As an immigrant, it is important to have the willingness to learn new culture, which includes language, behavior and even lifestyle. While one may decide not to conform to a new country’s behavior, it is never optional to learn a new language in a foreign country (Cronjà ©, 2009). In fact, it is believed that the process of learning a new language ought to be considered as an adaptive approach in overcoming a wide range of barriers encountered by immigrants. For one to be comfortable with learning a new language, it is essential to understand the pronunciation. As mentioned before, people from diff erent countries pronounce words differently. It is therefore, crucial for foreign students to identify difficult sounds for daily practice until confidence is gained. Additionally, learning preference should be given to words that are commonly used together with short phrases. For this to be successful, the learner needs to have an educated speaker who can help in correcting pronunciation mistakes (Cronjà ©, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Language Barrier in Education and Social Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides pronunciation, immigrants need to understand rhythm, intonation and stress, commonly used by native speakers of the foreign language. The simplest way of learning these elements is through imitation of native people that are educated. One can listen to some statements repetitively using audio and video tools (Cronjà ©, 2009). This can be followed by trying to say the same p hrases using a recording machine. In order for this to work, one has to repeat the process severally with an educated speaker for corrections. Skills gained from pronunciation lessons are essential in eliminating chances of misunderstandings during communication. Another way of learning a foreign language with ease is through borrowing or purchasing relevant materials, which are used by language learners. These may include but not limited to dictionaries, audio textbooks and translation dictionaries (Sherry, Thomas Wing, 2010). These tools help in minimizing language differences and communication barriers within a short period of time. Although language differences could be a communication barrier, there are several methods of communication, which have been developed to overcome these challenges. In other words, there are numerous ways of conversing smoothly without acquiring foreign language proficiency (Sherry, Thomas Wing, 2010). For instance, it is possible to pass across info rmation through written communication, which is a common method applied when dealing with figures and facts. Additionally, this method of communication is the most preferred when making presentations. Although it may have limitations to a person learning a new language, it is easy to keep record and make corrections where necessary. Another commonly used method of communication today by language learners is nonverbal communication. This does not make use of oral communication skills and one may find it relevant, especially when he or she is still new in a foreign country. Nonverbal communication is also referred to as body language. It encompasses an array of elements, including gestures, actions and facial expressions (Smitherman, 2003). With this approach, it is possible to communicate without necessarily speaking. In cases where both oral and nonverbal communication is used, harmony is essential to avoid misunderstanding and confusion. Nonetheless, variation and understanding of the sign language may pose a challenge, especially when the other party is new to it.Advertising Looking for research paper on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although some people view language differences lightly, it is regarded as a major communication issue. This is based on the fact that poor communication has a wide range of negative effects, which are experienced in schools, health centers and in other settings (Smitherman, 2003). The most detrimental effect of language barriers is misunderstandings, arising from communication gaps. Misunderstandings emanate from several instances, including, the use of slang or jargons, which are not universally recognized. Additionally, misunderstandings may arise from variation in accents due to diverse backgrounds and culture. It is doubtless that most conflicts in schools, families and even offices arise from misunderstandings. In essence, misunderstandings can breed frustrations and stress when a person is new in a foreign country. In some cases, these misunderstandings have been closely linked to emerging cases of stress among foreign students (Smitherman, 2003). One may feel out of place whe n he or she can neither get what is being communicated nor share ideas effectively. As a result of stress and disconnection from the surrounding immigrants, they may opt to be alone by excluding themselves from joint activities like playing and academic group discussions. Language barriers are also a major problem in written communication. Foreign students who do not understand the native language used in learning institutions find hardships in understanding lecture notes and other study materials (Roush, 2008). This is also experienced in written exams where students may have a correct idea, expressed wrongly due to ineffective communication. In extreme cases of such misunderstandings in written communications, students may end up failing their exams or scoring low grades. The negative impact of language barriers can also be experienced in the corporate world. Oftentimes, immigrants looking for employment in foreign countries fail interview tests because of language barriers. Due t o communication gaps, employers might not see the value in a foreign applicant. This may emanate from language mistakes or wrong answering of questions caused by poor understanding of the language being used (Roush, 2008). Foreign students seeking admissions in learning institutions may also be less considered because of their ineffective communication skills. Language barriers may also trigger cultural conflicts. For instance, different cultures have different ways of greeting each other or expressing gratitude. Based on such variations, it is possible for miscommunications to arise when certain things are not done the way they have been done before in one’s home country (Sherry, Thomas Wing, 2010). This is therefore, a major challenge, which immigrants need to beware of before going to study or work a foreign country. As globalization takes center stage and countries get smaller every day, there are new ways of communication that are being adopted. One of these approaches is language. The role played by any language, whether local or international is always immeasurable (Green, 2009). As discussed above, the purpose of a language gets undermined when there are differences, which breed communication barriers. These barriers are common in settings, which have immigrants, who do not understand the native language of the foreign country. In fact, it is believed that poor communication stems from a plethora of issues, language barrier being one of them. It is highly advisable for immigrants to beware of language differences before moving, and this problem can be solved in a short period of time. References Cronjà ©, J. C. (2009). Qualitative assessment across language barriers: An action research study. Journal of Educational Technology Society, 12 (2), 69-85. Green, D. A. (2009). New academics’ perceptions of the language of teaching and learning: identifying and overcoming linguistic barriers. International Journal for Academic Development, 14 (1), 33-45. Kim, E. Mattila, A. (2011).The Impact of Language Barrier Cultural Differences on Restaurant Experiences: A Grounded Theory Approach. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=httpsredir=1article=1175context=gradconf_hospitality Roush, V. (2008). A Rational Approach to Race Relations: A Guide to Talking Straight about Contemporary Race Issues. Indiana: iUniverse. Sherry, M., Thomas, P., Wing, C. (2010). International students: a vulnerable student population. Higher Education, 60 (1), 33-46. Smitherman, G. (2003). Talking that Talk: Language, Culture and Education in African America. London: Routledge. This research paper on Language Barrier in Education and Social Life was written and submitted by user Madison C. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Why We Study Humanities

Why We Study Humanities Free Online Research Papers One of the reasons why we study Humanities is to make people educated, cultured, civilized,socialized and refined. It is needed to respond to a rapid a social change. Without Humanities accompanying with the changes would be difficult for everyone. Life and society have different beauties that should be learned. Humanities helps to appreciate the beauty before our naked eye. It helps for the acceptance of individual’s differences. The acceptance that makes the society balance and harmonized. Humanities V is an art. Art is the reflection of the skills an individual possess. Arts have different elements, the visual arts, the performing arts and the literary arts. Visual arts is the art focusing in the visual aspect. Artist under this quoted, â€Å"I think, I see†. They are the painters who paint pictures from their own imagination, the sculptors that draw and carve from original designs of objects, the architects that plan and design the buildings, private residence and any establishment and the photographers that capture scene in its best angle. Performing arts make use of their hearing sense. They say that, â€Å"I think, I hear†. Thy are the dancers who move their body artistically, the choreographers that compose and teach dance moves, the singers that represent stage talent through signs of music and the actors that express emotions and feelings based on the role they play. Literary arts is a communication skill and make use of their mouth. They always say that, â€Å"I think, I write†. They are poets and writers that express their ideas through rhyming words, short story, novels, epics, biographies and essays. For a semester that I’m taking Humanities V as one of my subjects, I have learned just enough to change myself for the better. Upon learning the different topics, I do learn more about myself. I have a talent to express and be proud of and not to be ashamed of. I am unique individual that contributes to the society even in single ways. To live free is to live without any hesitations and doubts. To respect you, is to respect others for they are the reflection of our being. Research Papers on Why We Study HumanitiesHip-Hop is ArtThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andWhere Wild and West MeetThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoStandardized TestingThe Spring and Autumn

Saturday, February 22, 2020

An e-commerce strategy and architecture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

An e-commerce strategy and architecture - Essay Example According to the research findings it can therefore be said that the Secure-Car Business deals in such systems along with other accessories which can help secure our vehicles from illegal intrusion. Up till now, this firm has been running its business using tradition business management structure. For instance, it has a store where people come to shop. They shop for the desired product and pay instantly. The firm has adopted a paper based approach to keep the record of its products and services. In this IT based era where people want to shop by remaining at their homes, Secure-Car has been using a traditional business approach. Once the manager/owner of the firm was using the Internet to locate information on a specific device, he was shocked to see the support of the Internet for delivering the required information in a few seconds. Manager/owner of the firm decided to implement an e-commerce platform for their business. The basic purpose of implementing this e-commerce business is to promote their business and let the other people shop by sitting at their homes. This e-commerce web site will allow the customers to place an order online by filling an online form. In this scenario, the order details will be received by the Secure-Car firm and they will deliver the product to their customer. Though, it is a proposed scenario and for the actual implementation of this idea, the manager/owner of the firm must be familiar with the terms associated with e-commerce. 2- Introduction to E-commerce Concepts A lot of the ways business organizations and individuals perform their daily tasks and continue to exist in the twenty-first century are measured with the huge web of electronic networks that is normally acknowledged as the Internet (Turban, Leidner, McLean, & Wetherbe, 2005). In addition, the across-the-board existence of the Internet for performing transactions between sellers and buyers is the fundamental motive behind the development of electronic commerce or simp ly (e-commerce). According to (Laudon & Laudon, 1999, p. 25; Stair & Reynolds, 2003, p. 19), â€Å"electronic commerce is the process of selling and purchasing services and goods and products is carried out electronically by means of computerized business transactions over the Internet, networks, and other digital technologies†. In addition, e-commerce also encompasses the operations behind those business transactions, such as business marketing advertising, offering customer support, and processing payment. Additionally, by replacing old and rigid paper-based and manual techniques with electronic processes, and with advanced information flows in up to date and active manners, e-commerce does not only offer the business organizations a capability to accelerate the process of ordering, delivery, and payment for products, services and goods but also minimizes the operating and inventory expenditures of the organizations (Laudon & Laudon, 1999, p. 25). Moreover, the World Wide W eb (WWW) has turned into a common platform for performing e-commerce, building and implementing latest tools and technologies for the organizations to communicate with each other and their customers.